b'the opera . There are moments in Figaro, partic- K . 488 stands out for other reasons . Although ularly the Countess poignant aria, Porgi amor,oboes were standard instruments in 18th-cen-in which she laments her loveless marriage, andtury orchestras, Mozart uses clarinets in K . 488 in the finale when the Count begs forgiveness,instead . Mozart loved the sound of this instrument, which echoes the emotional depth and tender- and its dark round tone adds a pensive, melan-ness of the concerto . Correspondingly, passagescholy quality to the orchestration, particularly in the concerto, particularly in the Adagio, arethe Adagio . Mozart also abandoned typical piano vocalif not operaticin both constructionconcerto conventions by writing the Adagio in a and conception . minor key . Mozarts choice of a minor tonality, When performing, Mozart improvised caden- and the particular key itself, F-sharp minor, were zas for all his concertos, although many do notrare departures from his usual practice, and lend survive in written form . Other composers, mostpoignancy to this music .notably Ludwig van Beethoven, composed andK . 488 was published in 1800; throughout most notated cadenzas for several of Mozarts pianoof the 19th century, it was one of only a few of concertos . Mozarts original cadenza for K . 488Mozarts concertos to be performed . It became, not only survives but also was notated directlyand remains, one of Mozarts most popular and into the score . beloved works . HECTOR BERLIOZSymphonie fantastique [Fantastic Symphony], Opus 14COMPOSER:born December 11, 1803, La Cte-Saint-Andr, Isre, France; died March 8, 1869, Paris .WORK COMPOSED:Between January and April of 1830, although some of the material Berlioz included was written as early as 1819 .WORLD PREMIERE:Franois-Antoine Habeneck conducted the premiere in Paris on December 5, 1830 . Two years later, on December 9, 1832, Habeneck, with Berlioz in the orchestra playing timpani, conducted a substantially revised version, also in Paris .INSTRUMENTATION:2 flutes (one doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (one doubling English horn), 2 clarinets, 4 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 cornets, 3 trombones, 2 tubas (ophicleides), 2 sets of timpani, bass drum, cymbals, bells, snare drum, 2 harps and strings .ESTIMATED DURATION:49 minutesSay what you want about Hector Berlioz: he wasthan any composer had previously done .an arrogant, selfish, self-obsessed man, full ofBerlioz inspiration for the Symphonie fan-vitriol (try reading his music criticism sometime),tastiquewasbornfromhisobsessionwith and he drove poor Harriet Smithson, the inspira- Smithson, an Irish actress he first saw in a pro-tion for his Symphonie fantastique, who was soduction of Hamlet in 1827 . Berlioz spoke almost no unfortunate as to marry him, to drink and despair .English, so it seems clear that his violent infatua-All true, to be sure, but none of Berlioz deficitstion with Smithson was carnal rather than courtly . as a human being take away from the fact that at(Berlioz and Smithson did not meet for another five age 27, he wrote, by general agreement, the mostyears, after the premiere of the revised version of astonishing and groundbreaking first symphonythe Symphonie .)any composer has yet produced . What made Berlioz program so innovative and This feat is all the more surprising when weshocking to his audiences was the extent to which realize that Berlioz completed his Symphonie fan- the story was overtly autobiographical and literary . tastique just three years after Beethovens death .Along with Smithson, who was musically trans-When heard in that context, it is possible to appre- formed into the ide fixe, or recurring theme, of the ciate how truly original this music is . Berlioz wassymphony, Berlioz drew on plots from literature, no doubt inspired by Beethovens symphonic inno- most notably Faust, in his exploration of the ruin-vations, especially Beethovens use of a programous and glorious nature of love . What audiences, in his Sixth (Pastoral) Symphony, but, typically,both then and now, often misunderstood was the Berlioz pushed the programmatic elements furtherquintessentially romantic nature of Berlioz pro-18Santa Rosa SymphonyRESIDENT ORCHESTRA|WEILL HALL, THE GREEN MUSIC CENTER'